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Chloramine in Water

What are the health effects of chloramine? how to treat chloramine

Chloramines

an organic compound containing a chlorine atom bonded to nitrogen, especially any of a group of sulfonamide derivatives used as antiseptics and disinfectants.

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How to Remove Chloramines

Are most commonly formed when ammonia is added to chlorine to treat drinking water.

Provides longer-lasting disinfection as the water moves through pipes to consumers ( that's why it is used)

America's #1  Water Purification Solution

There are three ways to remove Chloramines from water or the ammonia in chloramines. One is ion exchange 

 Ion Exchange with zeolite
The second is Sodium alumino silicate zeolites

and the last is Distillation

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Immune System Problems

  • Chloramine cannot kill the pathogens in the water as well as chlorine.

  • People with suppressed immune systems must have their water boiled over Ten minutes BEFORE use to kill pathogens, or they risk becoming ill.

  • Those at risk include children under 6 months of age, the elderly, those on or who have had chemotherapy, people with HIV or AIDS, organ transplant patients, and others with a weakened immune system.



Respiratory Problems

  • Chloramine is known for causing respiratory problems.

  • Chloramine fumes can cause an individual to become congested, and sinus congestion, cause sneezing,  coughing, choking, wheezing, shortness of breath, and asthma (see the Hazardous Substances Fact Sheet for Chloramine, PDF, 98 KB), by the New Jersey Department of Health and Senior Services).

  • Chloramine damages mucous membranes. The lung damage in those exposed to chloramine in indoor pool air is similar to that seen in regular smokers.

  • Chloraminated vapor from showers, baths, hot tubs, dishwashers, and other household appliances contains volatilized chemicals that can be inhaled and cause irritation to the respiratory tract.

  • Inhaled chloraminated vapor can enter the bloodstream directly through the lungs. It bypasses the digestive tract where it is broken down and excreted.

  • If monochloramine enters the bloodstream directly, it combines with hemoglobin (red blood cells) so it can no longer carry oxygen".

  • The toxic exposure to chemicals (like chloramine) in water is greater from taking a shower than from drinking the same water.

  • An individual can experience long term effects from repeated exposures to a chemical (like chloramine) at levels not high enough to make them immediately sick over time will make them sick.

  • The likelihood of becoming sick from a chemical increases with exposure time and concentration.

  • It was found that there was an increase in deaths from influenza and pneumonia in the communities that used chloramine. (Communities in Massachusetts that used chlorine for disinfection were compared to those that used chloramine).

1) Chloramine exposure damages lung mucosa, making the lungs more susceptible to allergens and infections.
2) Chloramine is a less effective disinfectant and therefore people are exposed to more pathogens.



Skin Problems

Chloramine tap water can cause severe skin reactions:

  1.    rashing

  2.    dry skin

  3.    itching

  4.    flaking

  5.    welting

  6.    blistering

  7.    chapping

  8.    burning sensation

  9.    cracking

  10.    scarring

  11.    bleeding

  12.    pigmentation


Chloramine can aggravate other skin conditions such as eczema and psoriasis.
Chloramine can cause bleeding lips, dry mouth and dry throat.
Chloramine can cause burning, red, and dry eyes.
Skin exposure to ammonia "breaks down cell structural proteins, extracts water from the cells and initiates an inflammatory response, which further damages the surrounding tissues
."


Digestive and Gastric Problems

Chloramine damages digestive mucosa.
Chloramine can aggravate digestive disorders.
It is suggested that monochloramine is responsible for gastric cancer. 



Kidney and Blood Problems

Persons with liver or kidney disease and those with hereditary urea cycle disorders are at increased risk for ammonia toxicity from the consumption of chloraminated water.
Kidney dialysis patients cannot use chloraminated water in their dialysis machines because it will cause hemolytic anemia.
Chloramine must be completely removed from the water in dialysis treatment using extensive carbon filtration and a reverse osmosis or Cation filtering system to remove both chlorine and ammonia from the water.
There are populations that are unusually susceptible to ammonia reactivity or toxicity due to factors such as genetic makeup, age, health status, etc.
Chloramine can cause rubber corrosion of rubber plumbing parts like toilet flappers and rubber casings.
Rubber corroded parts need to be replaced with chloramine resistant parts such as synthetic polymer.

What is Chloramine?

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